|© 1998 Bernard SUZANNE||Last updated December 6, 1998|
|Plato and his dialogues : Home - Biography - Works - History of interpretation - New hypotheses - Map of dialogues : table version or non tabular version. Tools : Index of persons and locations - Detailed and synoptic chronologies - Maps of Ancient Greek World. Site information : About the author.|
This page is part of the "tools" section of a site, Plato and his dialogues, dedicated to developing a new interpretation of Plato's dialogues. The "tools" section provides historical and geographical context (chronology, maps, entries on characters and locations) for Socrates, Plato and their time. By clicking on the minimap at the beginning of the entry, you can go to a full size map in which the city or location appears. For more information on the structure of entries and links available from them, read the notice at the beginning of the index of persons and locations.
Ionian city of the coast of Lydia
in Asia Minor (area 7).
Phocæa was part of the Ionian Confederacy, the Paniones, grouping cities founded in Asia Minor by Ionians fleeing what was to become Achaia, in northern Peloponnese, where they had earlier settled along the southern coast of the gulf of Corinth west of Sicyon, when the area was conquered by Achæans that gave it their name (Herodotus' Histories, I, 142-148).
Phocæa was very active in establishing colonies in various parts of the Mediterranean during the VIIth and VIth centuries B. C., as far as France (Massalia, now Marseille), Corsica (Alalie) and Spain (Tartessus, past the straight of Gibraltar, in the Cadiz area, where the Phoenicians had already established a trading post as early as the XIIth century, B. C., a city called Tarshish, mentioned in the Bible, I Kings, 10, 22). Herodotus (Histories, I, 163-167) credit them for being the first Greeks to make long travels at sea and for discovering the Adriatic Sea, northern Italy (Tyrrhenia) and Spain, and tells how they fled to Cyrnus (Corsica) when Harpagus, a general of Cyrus the Great, took their city in 545B. C., as part of his conquest of Ionia (they may also have founded Massalia on that same occasion). They later moved to Reggio in southern Italy after a naval battle against the Carthaginians and Etruscans (called Tyrrhenians by Herodotus).